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ძიება მსოფლიოს უნივერსიტეტების ღია სამეცნიერო არქივებში

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თქვენი ღონისძიების ჩასატარებლად ეროვნულ სამეცნიერო ბიბლიოთკაში, გთხოვთ, შეავსოთ სააპლიკაციო ფორმა და გადგმოგზავნოთ ელექტრონულ მისამართზე: infopr@sciencelib.ge

მსოფლიო სამეცნიერო სიახლეები

VIDEO. Chien et chat : comment cohabiter en paix ?

Yahoo! Actualités: Les titres Sciences - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 18:07
Adopter un chien tout en ayant un chat ou vice-versa ? C'est possible, bien sûr ! Et si la cohabitation devient compliquée, des solutions sont également disponibles. Toutes les explications de deux spécialistes du comportement animalier, en vidéo.

A Paramour Le Bal, on danse contre le sida

lemonde.fr - Culture - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 18:06
Quelque 1 800 personnes se sont rassemblées le 14 février dans les salons d’honneur de la mairie de Paris pour une manifestation destinée à recueillir des fonds.

Fewer suicidal teens die young after caring ‘circle’

Futurity.org - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 18:05
"18" candles in palms of hands

Building a circle of trusted adults around a suicidal teen may have long-term effects that reduce their risk of dying young, a new study suggests.

Researchers from the University of Michigan tracked deaths among hundreds of young adults who spent time in the hospital for suicidal thoughts or attempts during their teen years, and took part in a study that the team ran in the early 2000s.

Half of the young people had been randomly assigned to receive the extra support of a few caring adults who received training in how to help the teens stick to their treatment plan and how to talk with them in ways that could encourage positive behavioral choices. The other half received the usual levels of care for the time.

The new data, published in JAMA Psychiatry, show that about 12 years later, far more of the young people who got standard care had died, compared with young adults in the group who had received the extra adult support.

The YST approach

The “Youth-Nominated Support Teams,” as the original study called them, were made up of family members, coaches, teachers, youth group leaders, and other adults. For three months following each teen’s hospitalization for suicidal behavior, these 656 “caring adults” received weekly telephone support from professional staff to address their questions and concerns and help them feel more comfortable in their role with the teens.

Although the study of hundreds of young adults cannot show cause and effect, it shows a strong association between the YST approach and a reduced overall risk of early death, and also specifically a reduced risk of death from either suicide or drug overdose of undetermined intent.

“…results suggest that caring adults in the lives of at-risk adolescents can make a difference…”

The leader of the research team is Cheryl King, professor of psychiatry and psychology, and leader of the original YST study. The researchers matched the original information about the study participants with national death records and state death certificates.

In all, 15 of the 448 study participants had died by 2016—but only two of the deaths were among those who had been assigned to the YST group. Statistically, this meant that the non-YST group had a sixfold higher rate of death.

The deaths, which occurred when the study participants were age 18 through 26, were ruled suicides in four instances, drug overdoses or an infection likely related to drug use in nine cases, and one case each of homicide and motor vehicle crash.

When the researchers looked at only the unknown intent drug deaths and suicides, there were eight in the usual-treatment group, but only one in the YST group. However, the number of suicides was too small to show a statistical difference in the number of suicides between the three in the non-YST group and the one in the YST group.

“The YST intervention may have had small and cascading positive effects that combined to have a long-term impact on the risk of dying,” says King. “Although further studies are needed to replicate findings and understand exactly how YST is helping, results suggest that caring adults in the lives of at-risk adolescents can make a difference, and this may be facilitated by education and support for these caring adults.”

Intertwined challenges

When King and her colleagues carried out the original study, they looked mainly at whether the teens stuck to their mental health treatment plans, got help for drug or alcohol problems if they had them, and expressed suicidal thoughts in the first year.

“Our aim is not to just prevent suicide but to improve the quality of life…”

The teens in the YST group were more likely to go to their therapy and medication-related appointments, and to attend substance use-related sessions during the year following their hospitalization for suicide risk.

In the first weeks after their hospitalization, the YST group had lower rates of suicidal thoughts. But when the one-year follow-up ended, the researchers found no major effect on suicidal ideation or self-harm.

The precise cause of the difference in deaths between the two groups, more than a decade later, is unknown. But King ventures that the extra support of adults—including parents, one of whom teens named to their support teams three-quarters of the time—may have helped.

“We know from other research that we need to look at all causes of early mortality that are preventable” because of the often intertwined nature of drug use and abuse, depression and other mental health disorders, and suicidal behavior, says King. “Our aim is not to just prevent suicide but to improve the quality of life for young people and prevent early mortality whenever possible.”

The intertwined nature of these disorders can even continue in death, when death certificates are vague about the cause of death and whether an overdose was intentional or unintentional.

Additional trials

King and her coauthors call on researchers to try to further examine YST and its long-term results and to examine the mortality outcomes of individuals who took part in other studies testing suicide-prevention treatments or strategies.

“The rate of suicide for adolescents in the United States is rising, and it is imperative that we identify and implement effective prevention and intervention strategies,” she says. “The YST approach, which is intended to supplement medication and psychotherapy treatments, shows promise as one such intervention.”

King notes that the team has copies of the YST manual available for researchers, clinicians, and advocates, and is willing to share them upon request.

The research team also includes representatives of Havenwyck Hospital, a private inpatient mental health facility where many of the patients originally received treatment.

Source: University of Michigan

The post Fewer suicidal teens die young after caring ‘circle’ appeared first on Futurity.

Biographie. Nancy Mitford, écrivaine britannique tellement francophile

lemonde.fr - Culture - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 18:00
Jean-Noël Liaut met en lumière les contradictions attachantes de cette incarnation parfaite de l’« upper class », auteure du classique « La Poursuite de l’amour ».

Venezuela Is Unraveling—So Is Its Science

Scientific American - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 18:00
Research has ground to a halt, and many scientists have left the country out of desperation -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

Distribution frauduleuse de glyphosate : trois acteurs du marché des pesticides condamnés

LeMonde - bio, environ, sciences - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:57
Les prévenus ont été condamnés pour avoir détourné la procédure communautaire, distribuant frauduleusement plus de 99 000 litres de glyphosate en 2008 et 2009.

La «petite appli rouge»: comment Pékin s'immisce dans les smartphones

Yahoo! Actualités: Les titres Sciences - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:52
Un réseau social patriotique conçu par Pékin se classe cette semaine à la tête des téléchargements en Chine. L'application donne des bons points aux «bons» citoyens qui se sentent obligés de l'utiliser.

ილიაუნის პროფესორები: პროცესები მიმართულია ავტონომიის ხელყოფისკენ

ილიას სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის პროფესორები შიმშილობასთან დაკავშირებით სტუდენტების მიერ გაკეთებულ განცხადებას ეხმაურებიან. წერილობით განცხადებაში ნათქვამია, რომ პროცესების რადიკალიზაცია ბიზნესის კოლის ყოფილი დეკანის, გიორგი ქადაგიძის ქმედებებით არის განპირობებული. „ილიას სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის პროფესორები გამოვხატავთ უკიდურეს წუხილს იმის თაობაზე, რომ საუნივერსიტეტო სივრცეში კომუნიკაციის პროცესმა ასეთი რადიკალური სახე მიიღო. ჩვენ მიგვაჩნია, რომ ამას სათავე დაუდო ბატონი გიორგი...

Amazon renonce à son siège à New York. On vous explique pourquoi certains habitants n'en voulaient pas.

Yahoo! Actualités: Les titres Sciences - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:49
Trois mois après avoir annoncé sa décision de partager son deuxième siège entre le nord de la Virginie et l'arrondissement du Queens à New York, Amazon a changé d'avis. Le 14 février 2019, la société a annulé son projet de construction d'un deuxième siège à New York, qui devait accueillir environ 25 000 nouveaux employés, sur […]>> LIRE LA SUITE SUR BUSINESS INSIDER Lire aussi : On connaît le nom de celui qui aurait trahi Jeff Bezos en publiant ses textos coquins Aussi sur Business InsiderL’appli Netflix peut télécharger automatiquement vos épisodes, voici comment ça marcheVIDÉO : Voici pourquoi compter ses calories pour perdre du poids ne sert à rienPourquoi le mur de Donald Trump serait aussi une très mauvaise nouvelle pour Elon Musk et SpaceXDonald Trump déclare l'urgence nationale pour construire son mur. Voici comment ça va se passer concrètement.Canal+ France a perdu un nombre impressionnant d'abonnés depuis 2015. Comment la stratégie de Vincent Bolloré a complètement échoué face à NetflixAmazon renonce à son siège à New York. On vous explique pourquoi certains habitants n'en voulaient pas.

Nigeria: Procès du "chief justice" Walter Onnoghen le 11 mars

Yahoo! Actualités: Les titres Sciences - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:45
ABUJA (Reuters) - Le principal juge du Nigeria, le "chief justice" Walter Onnoghen, a été inculpé vendredi pour n'avoir pas déclaré tous ses revenus, a-t-on appris de source judiciaire.

Bundesrat beschließt Plan zum Umtausch von Millionen Führerscheinen

Wissen - FAZ.NET Frankfurter Algemeine - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:31
Betroffen sind insgesamt rund 43 Millionen Autofahrer in Deutschland: Bis 2033 müssen sie ihre Führerscheine umtauschen. Eine neue Prüfung ist nicht nötig, dafür aber ein Foto – und laut ADAC rund 25 Euro Gebühr.

Exercise might improve health by increasing gut bacterial diversity

ScienceDaily Med - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:24
Research has suggested that the efficiency with which we transport oxygen to our tissues (cardiorespiratory fitness) is a far greater predictor of gut microbiota diversity than either body fat percentage or general physical activity.
კატეგორიები: მედიცინა

Exercise might improve health by increasing gut bacterial diversity

ScienceDaily Plants&Animals - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:24
Research has suggested that the efficiency with which we transport oxygen to our tissues (cardiorespiratory fitness) is a far greater predictor of gut microbiota diversity than either body fat percentage or general physical activity.
კატეგორიები: ბიოლოგია

2018 : l'année record de Huawei et Xiaomi en Europe

Yahoo! Actualités: Les titres Sciences - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:24
32% des smartphones vendus en Europe en 2018 sont de marque chinoise. Un chiffre en très forte augmentation.

Sign-language translator is as portable as Chapstick

Futurity.org - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:24
woman using chapstick

A new sign language translator technology is non-invasive and as portable as a tube of Chapstick, researchers report.

“We are providing a ubiquitous solution to sign language translation,” says Mi Zhang, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at Michigan State University.

“Hard-of-hearing individuals who need to communicate with someone who doesn’t understand sign language can have a personalized, virtual interpreter at anytime, anywhere.”

Hundreds of thousands of hard-of-hearing people rely upon American Sign Language, or ASL, to communicate. Without an interpreter present, they don’t have the same employment opportunities and are often at a disadvantage in delicate or sensitive situations, Zhang says.

“Think about if you were in the hospital and needed to communicate with a doctor. You would have to wait for the hospital’s translator—if they have one—to arrive, connect with a toll-free service or rely on a family member to be present,” Zhang says.

deep ASL cameraThe Deep ASL camera. (Credit: Michigan State U.)

“This compromises your privacy and could worsen a health emergency. This is just one example demonstrating the critical need for sign language translation technology.”

Zhang and colleagues saw an opportunity to help the hard-of-hearing population break through this communication barrier.

Zhang’s technology, called DeepASL, features a deep learning—or machine learning based on data inspired by the structure and function of the brain—algorithm that automatically translates signs into English. The technology uses a three-inch sensory device, which Leap Motion developed, that is equipped with cameras to capture hand and finger motions continuously.

“Leap Motion converts the motions of one’s hands and fingers into skeleton-like joints. Our deep learning algorithm picks up data from the skeleton-like joints and matches it to signs of ASL,” says doctoral student Biyi Fang.

“Other translators are word-for-word, requiring users to pause between signs. This limitation significantly slows down face-to-face conversations…”

Similar to setting up Siri on an iPhone, users sign certain words to familiarize their hands and joints to the technology and sensors. They also can create custom signs for their names or non-dictionary words by spelling them out, and have more ease and comfort communicating.

“One differentiating feature of DeepASL is that it can translate full sentences without needing users to pause after each sign. Other translators are word-for-word, requiring users to pause between signs. This limitation significantly slows down face-to-face conversations, making conversations difficult and awkward,” Fang says.

“Our technology is also non-intrusive, unlike other interpreter technologies that require signers to wear gloves, making them feel marginalized because you can literally see their disability.”

Beyond its ability to help the hard-of-hearing communicate to others, DeepASL can help those virtually learning ASL by giving real-time feedback on their signing. Prior technology through video tutorials had limited personal assistance, Zhang explains.

“About 90 percent of deaf children are born to hearing parents. These parents are learning sign language to communicate with their children but don’t usually have time to attend live classes,” Zhang says. “Our technology can gauge their signing to help them learn and improve.”

While the technology translates sign language to verbal conversation, Zhang says that existing, successful speech recognition technologies can help the other side of the conversation, allowing verbal communicators to speak with the hard-of-hearing.

The next step for the technology is commercialization, making it available to the hundreds of thousands of people who need a more accessible interpreter, the researchers say. Leap Motion retails for about $78. The researchers also plan to make the technology compatible with iPhones, and plan to teach it different sign languages.

Source: Michigan State University

The post Sign-language translator is as portable as Chapstick appeared first on Futurity.

'Cellular barcoding' reveals how breast cancer spreads

ScienceDaily Med - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:23
A cutting-edge technique called cellular barcoding has been used to tag, track and pinpoint cells responsible for the spread of breast cancer from the main tumour into the blood and other organs.
კატეგორიები: მედიცინა

'Seeing' tails help sea snakes avoid predators

ScienceDaily Plants&Animals - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:23
New research has revealed the fascinating adaptation of some Australian sea snakes that helps protect their vulnerable paddle-shaped tails from predators.
კატეგორიები: ბიოლოგია

From vibrations alone, acacia ants can tell nibbles from the wind

ScienceDaily Plants&Animals - პარ, 15/02/2019 - 17:23
Researchers find that the ants of the acacia tree are tipped off to the presence of herbivores by vibrations that run throughout the trees when an animal gets too close or begins to chew. As a result, the insects begin patrolling the acacia's branches more actively. Remarkably, the researchers show, the ants don't react when the trees' movements are caused only by the wind.
კატეგორიები: ბიოლოგია
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